The information is current and up-to-date in accordance with the latest veterinarian research.
Turtles and tortoises are reptiles that live on land and water in many parts of the world. They have hard shells that work as god-gifted protection for them. However, turtles still fall victim to many predatory animals. In fact, Turtle eggs and hatchlings are often the easiest prey in the wild. So, you may wonder what animals can eat turtles.
Various animals of land and water enjoy eating turtles and their eggs. The most common predators of turtles are sharks, crocodiles, alligators, raccoons, snakes, foxes, coyotes, crows, and seagulls. Even ghost crabs can crawl out of their holes to eat baby turtles.
Many animals, reptiles, amphibians, and birds hunt and eat turtles. In this article, we will learn about each of the turtle predators. Also, you will know what you can do to protect the wild turtles and your pet turtles.
12 Animals That Can Eat Turtles
Here is a list of common animals that can eat turtles. As you will see, most of these predatory animals like to eat turtle eggs and hatchlings.
1. Sharks and Killer Whales
Sharks and killer whales are one of the biggest threats to sea turtles. They are sea creatures. Naturally, they prefer to eat whatever is available in their environment. They eat sea mammals, fishes, and reptiles. So, obviously, sea turtles are on top of their list.
Turtles are easy to prey on because they are slow swimmers. On the other hand, sharks are among the fastest swimming predators in the sea. They can quietly sneak on the turtles without causing much commotion.
Sharks use their sharp teeth to break the hard shells of the turtles. Besides, most sea turtles cannot duck their heads inside their shells, which makes them even more vulnerable.
Killer whales also prey on sea turtles whenever they want. Mostly soft-shelled turtles like leatherbacks are common victims of killer whales.
2. Canines (Fox, Dogs, Coyotes)
Canines like foxes and coyotes can sniff out turtle nests near their location. Although turtles are not their favorite food, they will not mind eating turtles. Foxes eat eggs, hatchlings, and even adult turtles.
Foxes are cunning animals, which makes them great scavengers. They identify turtle nests and fest on the eggs or hatchlings when parent turtles are not around.
If you have a pet dog at home, you must keep your pet turtles safe. Like foxes, dogs also reportedly eat baby turtles or destroy the eggs. So, turtle owners must build a barrier and cover the turtle enclosure to keep turtles safe from dogs.
Raccoons are sneaky animals that are notorious for attacking reptile and bird nests. They are omnivore creatures. So, they like to eat turtles as well.
They are excellent swimmers. Hence, they can hunt down small to medium size turtles.
Raccoons can sniff out turtles even in urban areas. As a result, pet turtles can be attacked by raccoons. Raccoons enter houses and yards when people are not allowed. When they get what they want, they run away to a safer place to eat their food.
4. Skunks and Opossums
Like raccoons, skunks and opossums can attack turtles if they get the chance. They enjoy eating eggs. Besides, they have strong enough jaws to chew on tender turtle parts of both baby and medium-size turtles.
Weasels, honey badgers, and ferrets are also known for attacking turtle nests to feast on eggs. They may even try to eat turtle hatchlings.
Otters are carnivorous animals found almost all over the world. They live in wet habitats, like freshwater lakes, rivers, seas, oceans, coastlines, and marshes. Hence, they encounter turtles.
Although their primary protein source is fish, they eat other animals when they do not find fish. Otters are skillful hunters. Thus, they can fight an adult turtle and eat their flesh. They have strength to turn over a large turtle. As a result, the turtle cannot defend itself.
6. Some Snakes
Snakes hunt down nests of birds and reptiles to eat eggs. So, naturally, they will eat turtle eggs if they find a turtle nest. Some snakes will also eat baby turtles. They will spit out the eggshells and turtle shells after a while.
But most snakes do not eat medium or large turtles as they can be difficult to swallow. Turtle shells are hard, and they have sharp edges.
So, snakes will not risk eating them. They are calculative about size when it comes to consuming food. However, large snakes like the king snakes and the anacondas do not think much while eating adult turtles.
7. Crocodiles and Alligators
Turtles can become food for crocodiles and alligators on land or water. These reptiles are strong enough to strike large animals like hippos and buffalos. Hence, hunting turtles is nothing compared to that. Crocodiles and alligators hunt turtles when they see them. Turtles are slow. So, they cannot escape the mysterious reptiles.
Crocodiles and alligators use their sharp teeth to bite and break down the hard shells of turtles. They remove the hard shells and chew on the turtle flesh. Crocodiles and alligators sometimes attack turtles in their nests and eat hatchlings.
8. Ghost Crabs
Sea turtles lay their eggs in the sand. After hatching, the baby turtles have to cross a distance to reach the sea. Meanwhile, many of them become prey to many birds and animals. Even marine arthropods like ghost crabs attack turtles. They are not strong enough to attack adult turtles, but baby turtles are an easy target for crabs.
Baby sea turtles are vulnerable compared to adult turtles. Their shells are not strong enough to protect them, even from small predators like crabs. Therefore, baby turtles can be killed off and eaten by ghost crabs on the sea beach.
Depending on the species of ants, they can be dangerous for baby turtles and tortoises. Ant bites can be annoying and even deadly for baby turtles.
Fire ants are the most harmful insects for turtles. They can infect the turtle nests and bite the hatchlings to death. Then they will feast on the carcass of the dead turtles.
10. Some Birds
There can be a separate list of birds that eat turtles. The slow movements of turtles make them easy prey for many birds. Carnivore birds like hawks, eagles, and bearded vultures hunt and eat turtles. Other birds that eat turtles are:
Predatory birds like eagles, hawks, ravens, and crows can spot turtles from a far distance. Some large birds can pick up the adult turtles and throw them from a great height to break the hard shells. Then they eat the turtle.
The herons, cranes, and strokes use their long beaks to peck on the flesh of the turtles. Hence, the turtles cannot protect themselves even if they hide in the shells.
Seagulls are dangerous enemies for sea turtles. They eat turtle eggs when they nest. Also, they catch the turtle hatchlings when they try to get to the sea.
11. Other Turtles
It might be surprising for many people, but turtles can eat one another. Snapping turtles are known for their aggressive nature and for biting other turtles.
They may even eat hatchlings and young turtles if food is scarce. However, turtles eating each other is a rare incident.
Do humans eat turtles? Yes, they do. In the past, people near the coastline used to eat turtle eggs and flesh. At present, people all around the world have become more aware of protecting turtles. Hence, hunting and eating rare turtles and torture are illegal in many countries.
However, in some Southeast Asia countries like China and Singapore, turtle soup is a delicate dish. So, people still hunt turtles but not as much as they used to.
How Do Turtles Protect Themselves?
As you can see, turtles are victims of many predatory animals. Their slow speed and docile nature make them an easy target for big or small predators. Even so, turtles manage to grow their population. They have a few tricks under their sleeves (Under their shells!) to protect themselves.
Here are some ways turtles protect themselves:
They Live Hiding
Turtles are slow for many reasons. Their shells provide them natural protection, but it is also heavy. Hence, turtles cannot fight like other animals. Therefore, they avoid fighting by hiding.
Most turtle species like to live in places having plenty of plants, rocks, or other hiding places. Their skin and shell color make it hard to spot them.
Rely on Their Hard Shell
Turtles get inside their shells whenever they feel threatened. Their hard shells often drive away predatory animals as it is hard to break. The turtle shells can also be quite sharp. Therefore, many predatory animals avoid attacking and eating adult turtles.
Turtles Fight Back
Turtles can be slow, but they will not easily give up. They fight back when they have to. Turtles have powerful jaws to bite. Besides, many species have sharp claws, especially male turtles.
They bite their predator once they get the chance and scratch as hard as possible with their claws. It can injure the predators and force them to retreat.
How Can You Help Protect The Turtles?
If you want to help protect endangered turtle species, you can do a few things. However, most wild turtles are at the mercy of nature.
Many organizations are coming forward to protect endangered turtle species from predatory animals and humans. If you spot a turtle nest in a risky spot, you can contact a local turtle/animal help organization. They will know how to protect the nest. The volunteers may put a nest cage to keep the predators away.
If the area seems too dangerous for the eggs, the turtle conservation organizations may transfer the eggs to incubators. After turtles hatch, they are returned to the wild or in safe enclosures.
It would be better not to visit the nesting area of turtles to drive away predatory animals if you do not have any experience with turtles. You might end up scaring the turtles, and the turtles may abandon the nest.
How to Keep Your Pet Turtle Safe from Predators?
Even if you cannot do much to protect turtles in the wild, you can do a lot to keep your per turtles safe from predatory animals.
- If you live in an area where predatory animals like raccoons, foxes, dogs, and hunting birds are available, keep your turtles indoors.
- Build a sturdy fence around your outdoor turtle enclosures. It should be high enough to keep animals from getting in.
- Cover your indoor or outdoor turtle habitat with a protective cover or tank lid so that predatory animals cannot reach the turtles
- Provide more hiding space and vegetation for your turtles to hide from predatory animals and birds.
- If you have domestic pet animals like cats and dogs, keep them away from the turtle habitat. Even if they do not eat turtles, they might harm the turtles.
So, you must have a clear idea about what animals can eat turtles from this list of predatory animals. Many carnivores and omnivore animals and birds eat turtles. Adult turtles have a higher chance of fending off their hunters, but the offsprings are helpless.
Now that you know about the animals that can harm turtles, make sure they do not get close to your turtle tank. You should make better arrangements for your pet turtles to keep them safe from external threats.